Chapter 22 Meta-Analysis
‘Fett's Legislation: Never replicate a successful experiment'
Content list What is meta-analysis? Examples of meta-analytic studies Conducting a meta-analysis Replication and meta-analysis Evaluating studies simply by effect size Combining research by effect size Contrasting studies by simply signiﬁcance amounts Combining studies by signiﬁcance levels Contrasting and combining more than two effect sizes and signiﬁcance levels Several issues in meta-analysis 533 535 536 539 540 542 544 545 547 547
At the conclusion of this section you will understand:
1 What meta-analysis can be. 2 How it helps in conﬁrming study ﬁndings. three or more How to undertake a meta-analysis.
Introduction Meta-analysis has become a significant research approach as it enables researchers to combine the outcomes of many pieces of research on a topic to ascertain whether the ﬁnding holds generally. This is a lot better than trying to imagine the ﬁndings of a sole study have got global which means.
What is meta-analysis?
Each strand of a rope contributes to the effectiveness of the string. But the rope is more powerful than any individual strand. Similarly, when a particular ﬁnding is definitely obtained repeatedly,
EXPANSION CHAPTERS ON ADVANCED TECHNIQUES
under a number of conditions, were strongly conﬁdent that there is also a general rule. The effects of tiny localized specific studies, no matter how well done, are often insufﬁcient to provide all of us with conﬁdent answers to questions of general importance. Meta-analysis allows us to compare or perhaps combine results across a couple of similar studies. In the person study, the units of analysis are the specific observations. In meta-analysis the units of research are the effects of individual studies. The term meta-analysis means ‘an analysis of analysis'. A particular theme may have been replicated in various techniques, using, for example , differently sized samples, and conducted in various countries beneath different environmental, social and economic circumstances. Sometimes effects appear to be moderately consistent; others less therefore. Meta-analysis allows a rigorous comparison to become made rather than subjective ‘eyeballing'. However , the technique relies upon all relevant information being available for each one of the examined research. If a lot of crucial elements like test size and methodology will be missing then comparison is definitely not feasible.
Meta-analysis. An objective and quantitative methodology for synthesizing previous studies and research on the particular topic into a general ﬁnding.
Should you be asked to create a report to your manager around the economics of recycling waste paper, or on the romantic relationship between air travel fares and ticket sales, or around the relationship among money source and mortgage rates, you can expect to search for information by a variety of resources, including in-house documents, the web, the countrywide and local your local library, etc . The strategy is always to read studies relevant to the topic you wish to look into, summarize the ﬁndings, then integrate the present knowledge. From this you may consider that a particular variable features crucial importance, or which the relationships between particular factors are worth note. This can be the standard books survey to draw essentially subjective conclusions based on the critical analysis of the literary works. You generally use a ‘voting method' as a crude index of where the balance of benefits lies. This method is ﬂawed and inexact because: • • • you cannot deal with the best number of research on a topic, and so give attention to a small subsection, subdivision, subgroup, subcategory, subclass of studies, often devoid of describing the way the subset was selected; you often refer to the findings of earlier reviews with no examining individuals reviews critically; you are interested in a certain issue so you might not be inclined to give complete weight to evidence that may be contrary to your own preferred outcome.
Because of this, your very subjective conclusion might not accurately reﬂect the actual durability of the romance. You...
Sources: Cooper, They would. & Rosenthal, R. 1982. Statistical compared to traditional methods for summarising study ﬁndings. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 442–449. De Dreu, C. K. & Weingart, M. R. 2003. Task compared to relationship conﬂict, team efficiency and team member satisfaction: a meta evaluation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (4), 741–749. Gully, S., Incalcaterra, K., Joshi, A. & Beaubien, J. 2002. A meta examination of crew efﬁciency, efficiency and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (5), 819–832. Hosada, M., Stone-Romero, Electronic. & Layers, G. the year 2003. The effects of physical attractiveness on job related outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 56 (2), 431–448. Iaffaldano, Meters. & Muchinsky, P. Meters. 1985. Job satisfaction and job efficiency: a coto analysis. Internal Bulletin, ninety-seven, 251–273. Jenkins, J. 1986. Financial bonuses. In Generalising from Laboratory to Field Settings. Locke, E. (ed). Lexington: Lexington Books. Assess, T. A., Colberet, A. & Illies, R. 2004. Intelligence and leadership. Journal of Utilized Psychology, fifth 89 (3), 542–552. Mullen, B. & Birdwatcher, C. year 1994. The regards between group cohesion and satisfaction. Psychological Bulletin, 115 (2), 210–227. Mullen, B. & Rosenthal, L. 1985. Standard Meta-analysis. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum. Rosenthal, 3rd there�s r. 1979. The ﬁle compartment problem. Mental Bulletin, eighty six, 638–641. Rosenthal, R. 1984. Meta analytic procedures pertaining to social analysis, in Used Social Science Research Strategies, Vol 6. Beverly Hillsides: Sage. Rosenthal, R. 1994. Interpersonal expectancy effects. A 30 season perspective. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3, 176–179. Rosenthal, R. 1991. Meta-analytic Types of procedures for Sociable Research. Newbury Park: Sage. Smith, M. & Cup, G. 1977. Meta-analysis of psychotherapy final result studies. American Psychologist. thirty-two, 752–760. Thorsteinson, T. T. 2003. Task attitudes of part-time or full-time workers. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 76 (2), 151–177.
You will never have to undertake meta-analysis by hand. There are computer system programs for this. For example: you Meta-Stat – A Tool for the Meta-Analysis of Studies. Produced by Lawrence M. Rudner, Gene V. Glass, David L. Evartt and Patrick J. Emery. Meta-Stat is known as a DOSbased pc program that automates the countless complex duties that are necessary to
execute a meta-analysis. Your data can easily be result in a file format ready for work with by SPSS. Meta-Stat is free to get noncommercial, educational use. Meta-Stat is available throughout the auspices with the ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Analysis, Department of Measurement, Statistics and Evaluation, University of Maryland, University Park. Complete Meta-Analysis Software (CMA) manufactured by Biostat. A free trial download is available at www.power.analysis.com/about.biostat.htm
Now turn to the web site page for this chapter and undertake the actions there.
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