Essay regarding Male Reproductive system Physiology

MALE DUPLICATION

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY

Testis

- two compartments: interstitial tissue made up of the Leydig cells that synthesize and secrete androgenic hormone or testosterone and the seminiferous tubules that produce spermatozoa and include Sertoli skin cells

Leydig cells and testosterone synthesis

-- Leydig cells mainly produce testosterone

- Capital t is a pro hormones for activity of estradiol (vs. aromatase) and DHT (via. 5-alpha-reductase) - various effects of To are mediated via estradiol (esp in bone and brain) or DHT (secondary sexual characteristics o DHT is transformed locally, therefore will not observe high systemic levels в–Є has a bigger affinity to get androgen receptor, much more potent o T ( estradiol important for neg. feedback (esp at hypothalamus) and epiphyseal closure - LH from ant. pituitary acts in Leydig cellular material to promote synthesis and secretion of T (which will merely diffuse out since it is steroid hormone)

Seminiferous Tubules and Spermatogenesis

-- seminiferous tubules make up bulk of testicular volume level - spermatozoa are produced within the seminefous epithelium, and pass via a series of system into the epididymis - the seminiferous tubules have Sertoli cells

- spermatogenesis below FSH control

Regulation of Testicular Function

Position of GnRH

-- GnRH on sale since pulses, drive an automobile pulsatile gonadotropin release coming from ant. pituitary - Leydig cells reply to this pulsatile release simply by releasing signal of testosterone Negative Responses Regulation

- secretions from copie feedback around the hypothalamus plus the anterior pituitary to prevent the release of LH -- the Sertoli cells also produce inhibin which will possess a negative feedback on FSH - castrated animals have high degrees of FSH and LH

u replacing Big t in these animals brings LH back to normal levels, but not FSH o this is because FSH inhibition also requires inhibin

Function of Sertoli Cells

- Junctional contacts among Sertoli skin cells form the structural basis of the blood-testis hurdle - permits fluid formula inside the seminiferous tubule and rete examen to be totally different from that of testicular blood and lymph - the obstacle excludes tiny molecules via entering the STs exactly where developing ejaculation are located to shield them via potential mutagenic agents - Sertoli skin cells also perform an important part in development and growth of spermatozoa - Sertoli cells contain abundant numbers of androgen receptors and FSH receptors (indicates need both hormones pertaining to spermatogenesis) -- T is definitely converted to the more potent DHT within the Sertoli cells - Sertoli cells also generate androgen holding proteins (ABPs) thereby maintaining high concentrations of tubular androgens -- androgen is necessary to maintain spermatogenesis, but inauguration ? introduction requires FSH - Sertoli cell function under FSH and Big t influence:

o secretion of nutrients required for spermatogenesis

u formation in the blood-testis hurdle

o release of a watery fluid intended for transport of spermatozoa through the semineferous tubule and in to the epididymis u synthesis and secretion of inhibin

Effects of Androgens

Ancestry of Souffrance

- the examen are in the upper back region, but will eventually go down thru stomach cavity and also the pelvic brim to arrive in ball sack - testis is firmly attached to then posterior belly wall by simply fibrous remains to be of mesonephric tissues, and behind by a fibrous framework, the gubernaculums - intoxicated by T, the gubernalcumlum shortens, pulling the testis into the scrotum - the location of the testes is very important for spermatogenesis by providing more optimal temperatures for ejaculation production um location beyond body wall structure

o countercurrent exchange among cooler Pampiniform plexus and warm arterial blood -- Failure of testes descending = cryptorchidism

o males will be infertile if not really corrected before puberty

um T development is...

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